Blood sugar during pregnancy is controlled in 3 ways, one is exercise diet and third is meditation. Usually diet and exercise are the first tried, if the blood sugars do not come under control with these two, then only medications are started. When we come to exercises exercise, as in she needs to go for half an hour to 45 minutes of walking everyday and the speed of the walk it depends on the comfort of the patient and there is something known as isometric exercise . Isometric exercises are done in the sitting posture at home. Here one kg weight are grasped in both the hands and there is flexion of the arm at the elbow joint, flexion and extension are continuous movements about 3 to 4 sets are done each set is topped when the patient is tired and when she has some amount of shortness of breath. These are isometric exercise and any other form of exercise can be performed like yoga she can go for swimming and some amount of light dancing can be done. Coming to diet, diet she has to follow a diabetic diet, she has to take regular frequent meals, she has to keep up her time an these meals are divided into 6 portions, one is breakfast lunch and dinner, and in between breakfast and lunch, and in between lunch and dinner and late midnight snack, here the carbohydrate should constitute about 50 to 55% and proteins about 20 to 25% and fat about 15% and in between snacks should consist about whole-wheat bread and some biscuits devoid of sugar and direct sweets to be avoided and pastries, cakes, chocolates, ice creams to be avoided and sugar has to be brought down, rice content to be brought down, and she needs to eat more of wheat and ragi and after every meal if she can do some amount of light walking, that would very very helpful and the last would be medications. Medications would be oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin. Insulin is given for all diabetic patients. But now oral hypoglycaemic agents like metformin and glipizide are used and the doses of these are adjusted according to the sugar of the patient.
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